Properties of Bodies/Liquids


Measuring of length and time

  • Measuring lengths

  • Planemetry

  • Calculating the volume of regularly shaped bodies

  • Calculating the volume of solid bodies by the amount of liquid displaced

  • Calculating the volume of gaseous bodies

  • Measuring time (chronometry)

Measurement of mass and density

  • Calculating mass

  • Determination of the density of regularly shaped bodies

  • Determination of the density of irregularly shaped bodies

  • Determination of the density of liquids

  • Mass and weight

Pressure in liquids

  • Interconnected vessels

  • Hydrostatic pressure

  • The effects of air pressure

Forces acting on bodies in liquids

  • The weight of bodies in water

  • Buoyancy force as a function of depth of immersion and body mass

  • Buoyancy force as a function of the density of a fluid

  • Buoyancy force as a function of the volume of a body

  • Archimedes' principle

  • Sinking - floating suspended in a liquid - floating on a liquid

Density of liquids

  • Calculating density from volume and mass

  • The areometer

Forces at the surface of liquids

  • Surface tension

  • Capillary action

Forces, Simple Machines

Mechanics of solid bodies

  • Types of friction on solid bodies

  • Sliding friction (quantitative)

  • Center of gravity

  • Stability

Deformation due to force

  • Elongation of a helical spring (Hooke's law)

  • Elongation of a rubber ring

  • Deflection of a leaf spring

Combining and breaking down forces

  • Combining forces in the same or opposing directions

  • Combining forces in specified amounts

  • Breaking forces down into force components


  • String pendulum

  • Bar pendulum

  • Spring pendulum

  • Leaf spring oscillations


  • Two-sided lever

  • Two-sides lever with several forces acting upon it

  • Pair of scales

  • One-sided lever

  • Shaft-mounted wheel (Maxwell's wheel)

  • Belt-driven gearing

Pulleys and inclined plane

  • Fixed pulley

  • Movable pulley

  • Hoist with two pulleys

  • Block and tackle 1 (open type)

  • Block and tackle 2 (compacte version)

  • Forces acting on a inclined plane

  • Work performed on a inclined plane

  • Energy conversion

Mechanical Oscillations and Waves

Pendulum with harmonic oscillations

  • Thread pendulum

  • Rod pendulum

  • Helical spring pendulum

  • Torsion pendulum

  • Leaf spring pendulum

Time dependence of pendulum oscillations

  • Oscillation damping by body friction

  • Evaluation of registered leaf spring oscillations

  • Distance/time and speed/time diagrams of harmonic oscillations

  • Forced oscillations

  • Forced oscillations of pendulums

  • Forced oscillations of rod pendulum with amplitude recording

Linear superposition of oscillations

  • Linear superposition of oscillations, amplitude, phase and frequency dependences

  • Oscillations of mechanically coupled rod pendulums

  • Oscillations of magnetically coupled leaf spring pendulums with oscillation recording

Formation of waves (wave machine)

  • Energy transport in longitudinal and transversal waves

  • Standing transversal waves and longitudinal waves with loose and fixed ends

Standing waves

  • Frequencies of standing cord waves

  • Phase velocity of cord waves

  • Phase velocity of helical spring waves

  • Standing helical spring waves Oscillation nodes and antinodes as a function of the excitation frequency

Superpositioning of cord waves

  • Superposition of cord waves of identical frequency

  • Superposition of cord waves with a slight frequency



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